Franco Fagioli - Mozart

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October 2020
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Mozart and Castrati: Lasciate mi cantare!


If Mozart's passion for women’s voices is obvious, one should not forget that his first great lyrical virtuoso arias were intended for castrati! During the tour of Europe he began with his father, Mozart was asked to compose his first operas for the Italian stages where castrati triumphed in the role of Primo Uomo of opera seria. In Mitridate Re di Ponto, premiered in Milan in 1770 by the 14-year-old composer, three of the performers were castrati! This was followed by Lucio Silla (Milan, 1772), La Finta Giardiniera (Munich, 1775), and even (in parallel with the composition of The Magic Flute), La Clemenza di Tito (Prague, 1791): in these Italian seria compositions, Mozart obviously gave the lead role to the stars of the concert venues for which he composed, or used their presence to spice up the work. And it was the castrato Venanzio Rauzzini who created the splendid Exsultate Jubilate, of which he was the dedicatee, in Milan in 1773! The remarkable Franco Fagioli has dedicated his resplendent timbre to this repertoire which built Mozart's first great successes, and for which he wrote the virtuoso arias of his maturity. Charisma, exacerbated feeling, valour and vocal virility are the order of the day!

Program and cast

Cast


Franco Fagioli: Countertenor
Kammerorchester Basel
Daniel Bard: Violin and conductor


Programme

 

Franco Fagioli: Mozart
Mozart and Castrati


Arias by Lucio Silla, la Finta Giardiniera, la Clemenza di Tito, Exsultate Jubilate.


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 – 1791)
Aria by Ramiro « Se l'augellin sen fugge » (La Finta Giardiniera)
Recitative and aria by Cecilio « Dunque sperar poss`io.....Il tenero momento » (Lucia Silla)
Aria by Sesto « Parto, parto, ma tu ben mio » (La Clémence de Titus)
Aria by Sesto « Deh, per questo istante » (La Clémence de Titus)
Motet for soprano, orchestra and organ Exsultate Jubilate


Joseph Martin Kraus (1756 – 1792)
Ouverture de Olympie (tragedy from Voltaire)
Symphonie en do majeur « violon obligato » (Andante)
Ouverture de Proserpin
Symphonie en fa

Palace of Versailles

Royal Opera

The Royal Opera of Versailles, located in the grounds of the Castle, one of the major opera houses.

The opening of the opera house at Versailles brought to a close a process of planning, projects and designs that had lasted for nearly a century. While the Royal Opera was finally built towards the end of the reign of Louis XV, it had been envisaged since as early as 1682, the year when his predecessor Louis XIV took up residence at Versailles. The King had commissioned Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Vigarani to draw up plans for a ballet theatre. Mansart shrewdly decided on a position at the far end of the new wing that was to be built over the coming years: the nearby reservoirs for the gardens’ fountains could be used to fight any fire that might break out, while the sloping ground on that part of the site would allow provision of the necessary technical spaces below the stage without major excavation work. So cleverly-chosen, indeed, was the planned location that none of Mansart’s successors ever questioned it.

Major building work was already under way in 1685, but was soon interrupted because of the wars and financial difficulties which beset the later part of the king’s reign. Louis XV in his turn was long put off by the huge expense involved in the project. As a result, for almost a century the French court was forced to put up with a makeshift theatre installed below the Passage des Princes. When a grand opera was required, with a large cast and complicated stage machinery, a temporary theatre would be built in the stables of the Grande Ecurie, with the entire structure being demolished once the performances were over. This temporary solution was adopted, for instance, during the celebrations of the Dauphin’s wedding in February 1745, but its inconvenience was so starkly obvious that Louis XV finally resolved to build a permanent theatre, entrusting its design to his first architect, Ange­Jacques Gabriel.

The process of actually building the new theatre, however, was to take over twenty years. During this lengthy period of construction Gabriel, who had studied the leading theatres of Italy, in particular Vicenza, Bologna, Parma, Modena and Turin, presented a series of different designs to his royal patron, none of which was accepted. Only in 1768, faced with the forthcoming successive marriages of his grandchildren, did the king finally give the order for work to commence. Building progressed steadily and the new opera house was completed in twenty-three months, ready for its inauguration on the 16th of May 1770, the day of the Dauphin’s marriage to the Archduchess Marie-Antoinette, with a performance of Persée by Quinault and Lully.
 

Royal Chapel
 

This extraordinary two-level palatine chapel was built by Jules Hardouin Mansart between 1699 and 1708 and completed by Robert de Cotte in 1710.
The paintings on the vaulted ceiling by Antoine Coypel, Charles de la Fosse and Jean Jouvenet, as well as the lavish decoration fashioned by a team of sculptors working for Louis XIV, depict a number of Old and New Testament scenes. Facing the royal gallery is the remarkable organ, created by Robert Clicquot, the King's organ builder, which was first played on Easter Sunday 1711 by François Couperin.
Even though Hardouin-Mansart did not witness the completion of the chapel, he was the one who had dictated the major aspects of the architecture and decor: a ground floor with a nave, aisles and ambulatory, and an upper floor with galleries, a harmonious combination of white and gold contrasting with the polychromatic marble floor and paintings on the vaulted ceiling, all combining to create an original space with references to both gothic architecture and baroque aesthetics.
Every day, generally at 10 a.m., the court would attend the King's mass. The King would sit in the royal gallery, surrounded by his family, while the ladies of the court would occupy the side galleries. The "officers" and the public would sit in the nave. The King would only descend to the ground floor for important religious festivals when he would take communion, for Order of the Holy Spirit ceremonies and for the baptisms and weddings of the Children of France, which were celebrated there between 1710 and 1789. Above the altar, around the Cliquot organ played by the greatest virtuosos of their age, including François Couperin, the Chapel Choir, renowned throughout Europe, would sing motets throughout the entire service, every day.

The Orangerie gardens
 

From May to October, orange trees and other shrubs are taken out of the Parterre Bas of the Orangerie gardens. At the center of this parterre, there is a large circular pool surrounded by six sections of lawn.

 

Orangerie
 

A great stone cathedral within a formal garden, The Orangerie is both a royal and magical place.

Built between 1684 and 1686 by Jules Hardouin-Mansart to house and protect precious trees and shrubs during the Winter, this extraordinarily large building is located beneath the parterre du Midi (South flowerbed), for which it acts as a support. Two monumental staircases, known as "les Cent Marches" (the hundred steps), frame the Orangerie's three galleries, which overlook the parterre where, during the Summer, more than 1,200 exotic trees are arranged.

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